Ginger, cardamom, cloves
Turkish coffee contains a precise ratio of finely ground toasted and roasted coffee beans with cardamom pods and sugar. When the ground coffee is boiled in the pot (the way espresso is often made), water vapor distributes through the blend and helps release volatile oils from the spices. Depending on individual tastes, Turkish coffee may be served according to one's preference for amount of foam or solidified grounds mixed into each cup.
The drink is produced by boiling hot water and letting it drip through finely cut-up dark roast-coffee beans. Served at or near its boiling temperature, it is usually ready to drink immediately after pouring.
In Arabic culture it is customary to drink cardamom coffee after dinner out of respect for the guest. In Russian tradition, "daryay" (literally meaning day) serves as a wake up and work elixir - to export oneself from sleep and into laborious tasks with its refreshing and stimulating properties. As well as adding flavor, just a single spoonful transforms black coffee into an aromatic desert drink that calms one's stomach and helps brighten one's mood.